SHI'ISM During the 2nd/8th Century


SHI'ISM During the 2nd/8th Century

During the latter part of the first third of the 2nd/8th century, following a series of revolutions and bloody wars throughout the Islamic world which were due to the injustice, repressions, and wrongdoings of the Umayyads, there began an anti-Umayyad movement in the name of the Household of the Prophet in Khurasan in Persia. The leader of this movement was the Persian general, Abu Muslim Marwazi, who rebelled against Umayyad rule and advance his cause step by step until he was able to overthrow the Umayyad government.

Although this movement originated from a profound Shi'ite background and came into being more or less with the claim of wanting to avenge the blood of the Household of the Prophet, and although people were even asked secretly to give allegiance to a qualified member of the family of the Prophet, it did not rise directly as a result of the instructions of the Imams. This is witnessed by the fact that when Abu Muslim offered the caliphate to the sixth Imam in Medina he rejected it completely saying "You are not one of my men and the time is not my time."

Finally the Abbasids gained the caliphate in the name of the family of the Prophet and at the beginning showed some kindness to people in general and to descendants of the Prophet in particular. In the name of avenging the martyrdom of the family of the Prophet, they massacred the Umayyads, going to the extent of opening their graves and burning whatever they found in them. But soon they began to follow unjust ways of the Umayyads and did not abstain in any way from injustice and irresponsible action. Abu Hanifah, the founder of one of the four Sunni schools of law, was imprisoned by al-Mansur and whipped. The sixth Imam died from poisoning after much torture and pain. The descendants of the Holy Prophet were sometimes beheaded in groups, buried alive, or even placed within walls of government buildings under construction.

Harun al-Rashid, the Abbasid caliph, during whose reign the Islamic empire reached the apogee of its expansion and power, occasionally would look at the sun and address it in these words: "Shine wherever thou wilt, thou shalt never be able to leave my kingdom." On the other hand his armies were advancing in the East and West, on the other hand a few steps from the palace of the caliph, and without his knowledge, officials had decided on their own to collect tolls from people who wanted to cross the Baghdad bridge. Even one day when the caliph himself wanted to cross the bridge he was stopped and asked to pay the toll.

A singer, by chanting two lascivious verses, incited the passions of the Abbasid caliph, Amin, who awarded him three million dirhams. The chanter in joy threw himself at the feet of the caliph saying, "Oh, leader of the faithful! You give me all this money?" The caliph answered, "It does not matter. We receive money from an unknown part of the country."

The bewildering amount of wealth that was pouring every year from all corners of the Islamic world into the public treasury in the capital helped creating luxury and a mundane atmosphere. Much of it in fact was often spent for the pleasures and iniquities of the caliph of the time. The number of beautiful slave girls in the court of some of the caliphs exceeded thousands. By the dissolution of Umayyad rule and the establishment of the Abbasids, Shi'ism did not benefit in any way. Its repressive and unjust opponents merely changed their name.

Shi'ism in the 3rd/9th Century

At the beginning of the 3rd/9th century Shi'ism was able to breathe once again. This more favorable condition was first of all due to the fact that many scientific and philosophical books were translated from Greek, Syriac, and other languages into Arabic, and people eagerly studied the intellectual and rational sciences. Moreover, al-Ma'mun, the Abbasid caliph from 198/813 to 218/833, had Mu'tazilite leanings and since in his religious views he favored intellectual demonstration, he was more inclined to give complete freedom to the discussion and propagation of different religious views. Shi'ite theologians and scholars took full advantage of this freedom and did their utmost to further scholarly activities and propagate Shi'ite teachings. Also, al-Ma'mun, following demands of the political forces at the time, had made the eight Shi'ite Imam his successor, as is recounted in most standard histories. As a result, the descendants of the Holy Prophet and their friends were to a certain extent free from pressures from the government and enjoyed some degrees of liberty. Yet before long the cutting edge of the sword once again turned towards the Shi'ites and the forgotten ways of the past came upon them again. This was particularly true in the case of al-Mutawakkil (233/847-247/861) who held a special enmity towards Ali and the Shi'ites. By his order the tomb of the third Imam in Karbala was completely demolished.

Shi'ism in the 4th/10th Century

In the 4th/10th century certain conditions again prevailed which aided greatly the spread and strengthening of Shi'ism. Among them were the weaknesses that appeared in the central Abbasid government and administration and the appearance of the Buyid rulers. The Buyids, who were Shi'ite had the greatest influence not only in the provinces of Persia but also in the capital of the caliphate in Baghdad, and even upon the caliph himself. This new strength of considerable proportions enabled the Shi'ites to stand up before their opponents who previously had tried to crush them by relying upon the power of the caliphate. It also made it possible for the Shi'ites to propagate their religious views openly.

As recorded by historians, during this century most of the Arabian peninsula was Shi'ite with the exception of some of the big cities. Even some of the major cities like Hajar, Uman, and Sa'dah were Shi'ite. In Basra, which had always been a Sunni city and competed with Kufa which was considered a Shi'ite center, there appeared a notable group of Shi'ites. Also in Tripoli, Nablus, Tiberias, Aleppo, Nayshapur, and Herat there were many Shi'ites, while Ahwaz and the coast of the Persian Gulf on the Persian side were also Shi'ite.

At the beginning of this century Nasir Utrush, after many years of propagation of his religious mission in northern Persia, gained power in Tabaristan and established a kingdom which continued for several generations after him. Before Utrush, Hasan ibn Zayd al-'Alawi had reigned from many years in Tabaristan. Also in this period the Fatimids, who were Isma'ili, conquered Egypt and organized a caliphate which lasted for over two centuries (296/908-567/1171). Often disputation and fighting occurred in major cities like Baghdad, Cairo and Nayshapur between Shi'ites and Sunnis, in some of which the Shi'ites would gain the upper hand and come out victorious.

Shi'ism from the 5th/11th to the 9th/15th Centuries

From the 5th/11th to the 9th/15th centuries Shi'ism continued to expand as it had done in the 4th/10th century. Many kings and rulers who were Shi'ite appeared in different parts of the Islamic world and propagated Shi'ism. Toward the end of the 5th/11th century the missionary activity of Isma'ilism took root in the fort of Alamut and for nearly a century and a half the Isma'ilis lived in complete independence in the central regions of Persia. Also the Sadat-i Mar'ashi, who were descendants of the Holy Prophet, ruled for many years in Mazandaran (Tabaristan). Shah Muhammad Khudabandah, one of the well-known Mongol rulers, became Shi'ite and his descendants ruled for many years in Persia and were instrumental in spreading Shi'ism. Mention must also be made of the kings of the Aq Qoyunlu and Qara Qoyunlu dynasties who ruled in Tabriz and whose domain extended to Fars and Kerman, as well as of the Fatimid government which was ruling in Egypt.

Of course religious freedom and the possibility of exerting religious power by the populace differed under different rulers. For example, with the termination of Fatimid rule and coming to power of the Ayyubids the scene changed completely and the Shi'ite population of Egypt and Syria lost its religious independence. Many of the Shi'ites of Syria were killed during this period merely on the accusation of following Shi'ism. One of these was Shahid-i awwal (the First Martyr) Muhammad ibn Makki, one of the great figures in Shi'ite jurisprudence, who was killed in Damascus in 786/1384. Also Shaykh al-ishraq Shihab al-Din Suhrawardi was killed in Aleppo on the accusation that he was cultivating Batini teachings and philosophy. Altogether during this period Shi'ism was growing from the point of view of numbers, even though its religious power and freedom depended upon local conditions and the rulers of the time. During this period, however, Shi'ism never became the official religion of any Muslim state.

Shi'ism in the 10th/16th and 11th/17th Centuries

In the 10th/16th century Isma'il, who was of the household of Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardibili (d. 735/1334), a Sufi master and also a Shi'ite, began a revolt in Ardibil, with three hundred Sufis who were disciples of his forefathers, with the aim of establishing an independent and powerful Shi'ite country. In this way he began the conquest of Persia and overcame the local feudal princes. After a series of bloody wars with local rulers and also the Ottomans who held the title of caliph, he succeeded in forming Persia piece by piece into a country and in making Shi'ism the official religion in his kingdom.

After the death of Shah Isma'il other Safavid kings reigned in Persia until the 12th/18th century and each continued to recognize Shi'ism as the official religion of the country and further to strengthen its hold upon this land. At the height of their power, during the reign of Shah 'Abbas, the Safavids were able to increase the territorial expansion and the population of Persia to twice its present size. As for other Muslim lands, the Shi'ite population continued the same as before and increased only through the natural growth of population.

Shi'ism from the 12th/18th to the 14th/20th Centuries

During the past three centuries Shi'ism has followed its natural rate of growth as before. At the present moment, during the latter part of the 14th/20th century, Shi'ism is recognized as the official religion in Iran, and in the Yemen and Iraq the majority population is Shi'ite. In nearly all lands where there are Muslims one can find a certain number of Shi'ites. It has been said that altogether in the world today there are about eighty to ninety million Shi'ites.



Shiite Jurisprudence

The Basic Sources of the Islamic Precepts

We have said that this subject (i.e. the Fiqh) teaches us different Islamic precepts and laws. In this lesson we want to know the basic sources from which we derive the Islamic precepts and laws, that is, from where do we take out the Islamic precepts and laws?

By way of answering this question, we say: There are two fundamental sources for the different Islamic precepts and laws-the precepts and laws which regulate the actions of the individual, the life of the society and the state, such as the precepts of the Salat, Sawm, Hajj, Zakat, Purification, family rules, land, judiciary, Jihad, economy, wealth, politics, etc. These two sources are:

1. The Holy Qur'an.

2. The purified Sunnah [Traditions] of the Prophet (s.a.w.).

So, we take ail these precepts from the Holy Qur'an and the purified Sunnah of the Prophet (s.a.w.).


1. The holy Qur'an:

It is the constitution of the Muslims, the source of knowledge, law, ethics and Islamic manners which regulate the life of human beings, and show them the way to happiness.

Muslims take the precepts of their religion, and the laws of their life, from it. The Holy Qur'an contains hundreds of verses which talk about diverse precepts and rules, and are regarded as the basic source on which the expert scholars base their studies of the Islamic jurisprudence, taking from it, imany of the laws and precepts, other concepts covering all laws and systems of life are also taken from verses of the Holy Qur'an.

2. The Purified Sunnah of the Prophet.

The second source of the Islamic Shari'ah [law] from which we take the Islamic precepts and laws are the Traditions of the Prophet (s.a.w.).

Allah, the Most High, said: "And whatever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatever he forbids you, abstain (from it)".

The Traditions of the Prophet (s.a.w.) are composed of his sayings, deeds and consents. Below we explain these three divisions:

a. The Sayings: These are a collection of the oral sayings, speeches and statements uttered by the Prophet (s.a.w.). The true sayings and statements which have reached us, are thousands in number, all of which form the legislative bases and rules. They supply us with the needed precepts and laws, such as, the precepts of purification, worshippings, the social rules and regulations, such as the rules pertaining to property, trade, marriage, divorce, family affairs, land, work, judicature, government, etc.

b. Deeds: These are the actions done by the Messenger (s.a.w.) and regarded as part of the Sunnah. They show us the religious precepts which we are to follow. Therefore, we take his deeds as examples from which we derive the precepts: "Certainly you have in the Messenger of Allah a good example ...."

C. Consents: The Prophet (s.a.w.) had often observed people in the markets, gatherings, congregations, etc., but he said nothing against them. His silence in respect of such acts is regarded as his consent and, therefore, part of the Sunnah. Had these actions been contrary to Islam, he would have objected them.

So, consent means, the Messenger's approval of, and consent to, the actions which he witnessed and did not reject. Because had they not been in conformity with the laws of the Sharf`ah, he would not have kept silent and would have prohibited them.

Hence, the Prophetic Traditions are all the sayings, the deeds, and the Consents, which have reliably reached us from the Messenger of Allah (s. a. w.).



The scholars following the path of Ahl ul-Bayt regard whatever had originated from the twelve Imams'of Ahl ul-Bayt whether a saying, a deed or a consent, as to be a continuation of the Traditions of the Prophet (s.a.w.), and as a source of the Islamic precept.(The jurists of some Islamic sects regard all the activities of the Prophets' companionsto be Tradition.) The opinion which is backed by Allah's saying:

"Allah only wants to keep away from you (uncleanliness), O Ahl ul-Bayt and purify you a (thorough) purifying."

With reference to a Hadith from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.), who advised and enjoined us to refer to the Book of Allah and to his, Ahlul-Bayt (a.s.), and to depend on them for instructions. The honourable Companion [of the Prophet (s.a.w.)], Jabir ibn `Abdillah Al-Ansari, quoting the Prophet (s.a.w.), said:

"O people! I have left with you that which will not let you go astray if you have recourse to it: The Book of Allah, and my offspring-my Ahl ul-Bayt." ("Sahih at-Tirmidhi",vol. 2. "Sahih Muslim", on The merits of Imam 'Ali ibn Abi Talib(a.s.)).